# Fictitious play¶

The fictitious play algorithm implemented in Nashpy is based on the one described in [Fudenberg1998].

The algorithm is as follows:

For a game $$(A, B)\in\mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$$ define $$\kappa_t^{i}:S^{-1}\to\mathbb{N}$$ to be a function that in a given time interval $$t$$ for a player $$i$$ maps a strategy $$s$$ from the opponent’s strategy space $$S^{-1}$$ to a number of total times the opponent has played $$s$$.

Thus:

$\begin{split}\kappa_t^{i}(s^{-i}) = \kappa_{t-1}(s^{-i}) + \begin{cases} 1,& \text{ if }s^{-i}_{t-1}=s^{-i}\\ 0,& \text{ otherwise} \end{cases}\end{split}$

In practice:

$\kappa_t^{1} \in \mathbb{Z}^{n}\qquad \kappa_t^{2} \in \mathbb{Z} ^ {m}$

At stage $$t$$, each player assumes their opponent is playing a mixed strategy based on $$\kappa_{t-1}$$:

$\frac{\kappa_{t-1}}{\sum\kappa_{t-1}}$

They calculate the expected value of each strategy, which is equivalent to:

$s_{t}^{1}\in\text{argmax}_{s\in S_1}A\kappa_{t-1}^{2}\qquad s_{t}^{2}\in\text{argmax}_{s\in S_2}B^T\kappa_{t-1}^{1}$

In the case of multiple best responses, a random choice is made.

## Discussion¶

Note that this algorithm will not always converge and sometimes it depends on the form of the game.

For example:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> import nashpy as nash
>>> A = np.array([[0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1], [1, 0, 0]])
>>> B = np.array([[0, 0, 1], [1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0]])
>>> game = nash.Game(A, B)
>>> iterations = 10000
>>> np.random.seed(0)
>>> play_counts = tuple(game.fictitious_play(iterations=iterations))
>>> play_counts[-1]
[array([5464., 1436., 3100.]), array([2111., 4550., 3339.])]


We can visualise the lack of convergence:

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> plt.figure()
>>> probabilities = [row_play_counts / np.sum(row_play_counts) for row_play_counts, col_play_counts in play_counts]
>>> for number, strategy in enumerate(zip(*probabilities)):
...     plt.plot(strategy, label=f"$s_{number}$")
>>> plt.xlabel("Iteration")
>>> plt.ylabel("Probability")
>>> plt.title("Actions taken by row player")
>>> plt.legend() If we modify the game slightly we obtain a different outcome:

>>> A = np.array([[1 / 2, 1, 0], [0, 1 / 2, 1], [1, 0, 1 / 2]])
>>> B = np.array([[1 / 2, 0, 1], [1, 1 / 2, 0], [0, 1, 1 / 2]])
>>> game = nash.Game(A, B)
>>> np.random.seed(0)
>>> play_counts = tuple(game.fictitious_play(iterations=iterations))
>>> play_counts[-1]
[array([3290., 3320., 3390.]), array([3356., 3361., 3283.])]


With a clear convergence now visible:

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> plt.figure()
>>> probabilities = [row_play_counts / np.sum(row_play_counts) for row_play_counts, col_play_counts in play_counts]
>>> for number, strategy in enumerate(zip(*probabilities)):
...     plt.plot(strategy, label=f"$s_{number}$")
>>> plt.xlabel("Iteration")
>>> plt.ylabel("Probability")
>>> plt.title("Actions taken by row player")
>>> plt.legend() 